An integrated assessment of pharmaceuticals in water systems

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

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Pharmaceutical pollution of freshwaters is occurring globally. A large variety of pharmaceutical substances enters the environment from different sources, i.e. manufacturing, human and animal excretion, or disposal into sewage or landfills. Once in the environment, pharmaceuticals pose diverse risks. They can be ecotoxic to flora and fauna, they can enter drinking water and food products and they are associated with resistances that can lead to failure of pharmaceutical treatment. While pharmaceutical pollution is mostly investigated from an environmental perspective – focussing on chemical processes, risk assessments or technical solutions – this thesis integrates the environmental dimension of impact assessment with the societal dimension of identifying drivers and exploring societal solutions.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • University of Twente
  • Krol, Maarten S., Supervisor
  • Hogeboom, Rick, Co-Supervisor
Award date4 Mar 2022
Place of PublicationEnschede
Print ISBNs978-90-831804-4-1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2022


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