An outlook towards 2030: Optimization and design of a CCUS supply chain in Germany

Grazia Leonzio*, Pier Ugo Foscolo, Edwin Zondervan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


A mathematical model for the optimal design of a supply chain for carbon capture, utilization and storage is developed. Carbon dioxide may be stored and/or utilized to produce methanol via methane dry reforming. The Mixed Integer Linear Program model is developed for ten major carbon dioxide emission sources in Germany. Three different cases are considered, according to hydrogen production route required to correct the syngas composition: hydrogen by external reforming, hydrogen by external water electrolysis, hydrogen by internal steam reforming. Results show that absorption is the preferred capture solutions at high flue gas flow rate. Results also show that the best option is providing hydrogen by water electrolysis, because a higher amount of carbon dioxide is used to produce the same amount of methanol with lower environmental impact. The proposed network produces 203 Mton/year of methanol, then Germany would be able to satisfy the world methanol demand in the next years. Carbon tax and economic incentives are required to reduce the methanol production cost to 340 €/ton: only in this case the process is economically feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-513
Number of pages15
JournalComputers & chemical engineering
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • CCUS supply chain network
  • CO reduction
  • Mathematical model
  • Methane dry reforming
  • Methanol
  • Optimization


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