An overview on principles for energy efficient robot locomotion

Navvab Kashiri* (Corresponding Author), Andy Abate, Sabrina J. Abram, Alin Albu-Schaffer, Patrick J. Clary, Monica Daley, Salman Faraji, Raphael Furnemont, Manolo Garabini, Hartmut Geyer, Alena M. Grabowski, Jonathan Hurst, Jorn Malzahn, Glenn Mathijssen, David Remy, Wesley Roozing, Mohammad Shahbazi, Surabhi N. Simha, Jae Bok Song, Nils Smit-AnseeuwStefano Stramigioli, Bram Vanderborght, Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy, Nikos Tsagarakis

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

    41 Citations (Scopus)
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    Despite enhancements in the development of robotic systems, the energy economy of today's robots lags far behind that of biological systems. This is in particular critical for untethered legged robot locomotion. To elucidate the current stage of energy efficiency in legged robotic systems, this paper provides an overview on recent advancements in development of such platforms. The covered different perspectives include actuation, leg structure, control and locomotion principles. We review various robotic actuators exploiting compliance in series and in parallel with the drive-train to permit energy recycling during locomotion. We discuss the importance of limb segmentation under efficiency aspects and with respect to design, dynamics analysis and control of legged robots. This paper also reviews a number of control approaches allowing for energy efficient locomotion of robots by exploiting the natural dynamics of the system, and by utilizing optimal control approaches targeting locomotion expenditure. To this end, a set of locomotion principles elaborating on models for energetics, dynamics, and of the systems is studied.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number129
    JournalFrontiers Robotics AI
    Issue numberDEC
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


    • Bio-inspired motions
    • Cost of transport
    • Energetics
    • Energy efficiency
    • Locomotion principles
    • Variable impedance actuators


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