Analysis and experimental validation of a pumped two-phase loop for multi-component electronics cooling

Myron Middelhuis, Miguel Muñoz Rojo, Wessel W. Wits*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Miniaturization and enhanced performance of microchips has resulted in powerful electronic devices with high heat flux components. For these advanced electronics, the current heat transfer method of single-phase forced convection is reaching its thermal limit and more effective cooling solutions are needed. A pumped two-phase loop, in which a pump circulates a working fluid that evaporates to absorb heat, can offer a solution. In this paper the cooling performance of a pumped two-phase loop is discussed and validated. A numerical tool has been developed to aid in designing a fit-for-purpose pumped two-phase loop and to predict its behaviour to changing system parameters and heat inputs. Results from the numerical model are compared with temperature, pressure and flow velocity measurements obtained from a prototype setup. The effects of applying varying heat loads on both a single evaporator and on multiple evaporators simultaneously either in series or in parallel have been investigated. Heat transfer coefficients between 7 and 10 kW/m2K were obtained during the experiments. Model predictions correspond well to the measured performances and findings on the two-phase boiling behaviour are presented. The model is particularly useful for the rapid assessment of the layout of a pumped two-phase loop for high heat flux electronics cooling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-327
Number of pages23
JournalHeat and Mass Transfer/Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung
Issue number2
Early online date15 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Stochastic approximation
  • Multi-armed bandits
  • Optimal stopping
  • Bayesian computation
  • Markov decision processes
  • n/a OA procedure


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