X-ray diffraction measurements and analysis were carried out on ball-milled Mo powder. During the ball milling of Mo powder, several stages of deformation could be identified. After short durations of ball milling, still undeformed starting powder was present and the volume fraction of this was determined. The initial aggregates of deformed powder particles exhibited a deformation texture. On prolonged ball milling, the particle size decreased, the deformation texture disappeared and internal strains built up. By simulation and matching of the corresponding line profiles using a Monte Carlo type of line-profile simulation based on a simple three-dimensional model of the distribution of straight dislocations, an estimate of the dislocation density in the ball-milled particles was obtained.