After decades of research, relatively little is known about the role of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering. Although homogeneous cell seeding is regarded optimal, cell survival in large constructs is unlikely, except for the very periphery. Also no minimal and optimal BMSC densities have been identified. An interesting development is the use of allogeneic BMSCs. These have not yet been compared directly to autologous BMSCs. Culture-expanded BMSCs of 10 Dutch milk goats were cryopreserved and peroperatively seeded on 7 mm cubic scaffolds of 65% porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). A range of BMSC densities (per cm3 scaffold) were prepared of 8E2 (= 8 × 102), 8E3, 8E4, 8E5, 8E6 (considered the standard), and 1.6E7. Each goat received a control without cells, the six densities, and an 8E6 allogeneic BMSCs construct intramuscularly. After 3, 5, and 7 weeks, fluorochrome markers were administrated. At 9 weeks, implants were retrieved. The BCP scaffolds appeared to be autoinductive as the controls (without BMSCs) showed some bone. Early bone formation (before 3 weeks) appeared only at the peripheral 2 mm of the BMSC-seeded constructs; the later 5- and 9-week labels were found more centrally, suggesting bone migration to the center. There was a minimum of 8E4 and optimum of 8E6 BMSCs/cm3. Allogeneic cells yielded comparable new bone.
Kruyt, M. C., de Bruijn, J. D., Rouwkema, J., van Blitterswijk, C., Oner, C., Verbout, A., & Dhert, W. (2008). Analysis of the Dynamics of Bone Formation, Effect of Cell Seeding Density, and Potential of Allogeneic Cells in Cell-Based Bone Tissue Engineering in Goats. Tissue engineering. Part A, 14(6), 1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2007.0111