Annual green water resources and vegetation resilience indicators: definitions, mutual relationships, and future climate projections

Matteo Zampieri*, Bruna Grizzetti, Michele Meroni, Enrico Scoccimarro, A. Vrieling, Gustavo Naumann, Andrea Toreti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Satellites offer a privileged view on terrestrial ecosystems and a unique possibility to evaluate their status, their resilience and the reliability of the services they provide. In this study, we introduce two indicators for estimating the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems from the local to the global levels. We use the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to estimate annual vegetation primary production resilience. We use annual precipitation time series to estimate annual green water resource resilience. Resilience estimation is achieved through the annual production resilience indicator, originally developed in agricultural science, which is formally derived from the original ecological definition of resilience i.e., the largest stress that the system can absorb without losing its function. Interestingly, we find coherent relationships between annual green water resource resilience and vegetation primary production resilience over a wide range of world biomes, suggesting that green water resource resilience contributes to determining vegetation primary production resilience. Finally, we estimate the changes of green water resource resilience due to climate change using results from the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP6) and discuss the potential consequences of global warming for ecosystem service reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2708
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalRemote sensing
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 19 Nov 2019



  • ecosystem services
  • precipitation
  • NDVI
  • water resources
  • primary production
  • resilience indicator
  • stability
  • reliability

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