Annular fiber probe for interstitial illumination in photoacoustic guidance of radiofrequency ablation

Hindrik Kruit*, Kalloor Joseph Francis, Elina Rascevska, Srirang Manohar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
39 Downloads (Pure)


Unresectable liver tumors are commonly treated with percutaneous radiofrequency abla-tion (RFA). However, this technique is associated with high recurrence rates due to incomplete tumor ablation. Accurate image guidance of the RFA procedure contributes to successful ablation, but currently used imaging modalities have shortcomings in device guidance and treatment monitor-ing. We explore the potential of using photoacoustic (PA) imaging combined with conventional ultrasound (US) imaging for real-time RFA guidance. To overcome the low penetration depth of light in tissue, we have developed an annular fiber probe (AFP), which can be inserted into tissue enabling interstitial illumination of tissue. The AFP is a cannula with 72 optical fibers that allows an RFA device to slide through its lumen, thereby enabling PA imaging for RFA device guidance and ablation monitoring. We show that the PA signal from interstitial illumination is not affected by absorber-to-surface depth compared to extracorporeal illumination. We also demonstrate successful imaging of the RFA electrodes, a blood vessel mimic, a tumor-mimicking phantom, and ablated liver tissue boundaries in ex vivo chicken and bovine liver samples. PA-assisted needle guidance revealed clear needle tip visualization, a notable improvement to current US needle guidance. Our probe shows potential for RFA device guidance and ablation detection, which potentially aids in real-time monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4458
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021


  • Interstitial illumination
  • Interventional imaging
  • Liver treatment
  • Minimally invasive procedures
  • Multimodal imaging
  • Photoacoustics
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Surgical tool tracking
  • Ultrasound imaging


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