Approximations to the lifetime distribution of k-out of-n systems with cold standby

Dirk Kroese, W.C.M. Kallenberg

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We consider several approximations to the lifetime distribution of general k-out-of-n systems with cold standby, when n becomes large. The approximations are derived from limiting results for N(t), the number of failures in [0, t], when t → ∞. The approximations can be easily evaluated even though the derivation of the limiting result is rather technical, due to the discrete character of N(t). Numerical work shows excellent agreement with the theoretical error structure of the approximations.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)485-501
JournalMathematics of operations research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1989


  • k-out-of-n systems with cold standby
  • IR-98493
  • Approximations
  • Reliability
  • renewal processes

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