Are you a great negotiator? game-based learning of 21st century negotiation skills in the Netherlands and Japan

Frans Stel*, Yuko Hayashi, Ko Momotani, Kumiko Kusakai, Rogier De Jong, Will Baber, Aldis Sigurdardottir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


Increasing global stress during the era of COVID-19 compels the necessity of international cooperation skills to achieve a common goal within a limited time and effort through constructive negotiation. Therefore, training of 21st-century communication skills boosting international deals becomes increasingly essential. To promote awareness and train collaboration competencies, we developed serious games to simulate negotiation experiences and tested the games in two cultural settings: i.e., the Netherlands and Japan. Our negotiation games are to evaluate distributive aspects (zero-sum or win/lose) or the integrative aspects (win-win). We question whether the negotiator's positive self-judgment, the negotiation process, and the relationship between negotiators can predict negotiation performance. We also examine whether negotiation performance depends upon personal characteristics and cultural background of negotiators and their counterparts. Positive self-judgment among Japanese participants provided clues to predict negotiation performance (especially in distributive negotiations). Besides, we found a diverse impact of emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and emotional intelligence on negotiation performance. In the Netherlands, less agreeable and less extraverted negotiators achieved better outcomes when engaged in distributive negotiations. Emotionality and openness are detrimental to integrative negotiations. In Japan, emotional intelligence reduced negotiation performance. We provide practical recommendations for skill training based on the above findings.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 14th European Conference on Game Based Learning, ECGBL 2020
EditorsPanagiotis Fotaris
PublisherDechema e.V.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781912764716
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event14th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2020 - Online Event, Brighton, United Kingdom
Duration: 24 Sep 202025 Sep 2020
Conference number: 14

Publication series

NameProceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning
ISSN (Print)2049-0992


Conference14th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2020
Abbreviated titleECGBL 2020
CountryUnited Kingdom


  • Emotional intelligence
  • Negotiations
  • Personality
  • Serious games
  • Social Value Indicator


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