Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid regime

J.M. Zaldivar, J.M. Zaldivar, E.J. Molga, M.A. Alos, H. Hernandez, K.R. Westerterp

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    Abstract

    Aromatic nitration by mixed acid was selected as a specific case of heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme was followed using adiabatic and heat flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments was carried out to study the influence of different initial and operating conditions, such as temperature, stirring speed, feed rate and sulphuric acid concentration. In parallel, a mathematical model to predict the overall conversion rate was developed. In this paper, the mathematical modelling, implementation and experimental validation for mononitrations of benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene in the mass transfer controlled regime of fast liquid-liquid reactions are presented and discussed.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)91-105
    Number of pages15
    JournalChemical engineering and processing : process intensification
    Volume35
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1996

    Keywords

    • METIS-106221
    • IR-11554

    Cite this

    Zaldivar, J. M., Zaldivar, J. M., Molga, E. J., Alos, M. A., Hernandez, H., & Westerterp, K. R. (1996). Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid regime. Chemical engineering and processing : process intensification, 35(2), 91-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/0255-2701(95)04119-2
    Zaldivar, J.M. ; Zaldivar, J.M. ; Molga, E.J. ; Alos, M.A. ; Hernandez, H. ; Westerterp, K.R. / Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid regime. In: Chemical engineering and processing : process intensification. 1996 ; Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 91-105.
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    abstract = "Aromatic nitration by mixed acid was selected as a specific case of heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme was followed using adiabatic and heat flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments was carried out to study the influence of different initial and operating conditions, such as temperature, stirring speed, feed rate and sulphuric acid concentration. In parallel, a mathematical model to predict the overall conversion rate was developed. In this paper, the mathematical modelling, implementation and experimental validation for mononitrations of benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene in the mass transfer controlled regime of fast liquid-liquid reactions are presented and discussed.",
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    Zaldivar, JM, Zaldivar, JM, Molga, EJ, Alos, MA, Hernandez, H & Westerterp, KR 1996, 'Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid regime' Chemical engineering and processing : process intensification, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 91-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/0255-2701(95)04119-2

    Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid regime. / Zaldivar, J.M.; Zaldivar, J.M.; Molga, E.J.; Alos, M.A.; Hernandez, H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    In: Chemical engineering and processing : process intensification, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1996, p. 91-105.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid regime

    AU - Zaldivar, J.M.

    AU - Zaldivar, J.M.

    AU - Molga, E.J.

    AU - Alos, M.A.

    AU - Hernandez, H.

    AU - Westerterp, K.R.

    PY - 1996

    Y1 - 1996

    N2 - Aromatic nitration by mixed acid was selected as a specific case of heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme was followed using adiabatic and heat flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments was carried out to study the influence of different initial and operating conditions, such as temperature, stirring speed, feed rate and sulphuric acid concentration. In parallel, a mathematical model to predict the overall conversion rate was developed. In this paper, the mathematical modelling, implementation and experimental validation for mononitrations of benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene in the mass transfer controlled regime of fast liquid-liquid reactions are presented and discussed.

    AB - Aromatic nitration by mixed acid was selected as a specific case of heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme was followed using adiabatic and heat flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments was carried out to study the influence of different initial and operating conditions, such as temperature, stirring speed, feed rate and sulphuric acid concentration. In parallel, a mathematical model to predict the overall conversion rate was developed. In this paper, the mathematical modelling, implementation and experimental validation for mononitrations of benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene in the mass transfer controlled regime of fast liquid-liquid reactions are presented and discussed.

    KW - METIS-106221

    KW - IR-11554

    U2 - 10.1016/0255-2701(95)04119-2

    DO - 10.1016/0255-2701(95)04119-2

    M3 - Article

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    SP - 91

    EP - 105

    JO - Chemical engineering and processing : process intensification

    JF - Chemical engineering and processing : process intensification

    SN - 0255-2701

    IS - 2

    ER -