Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Slow liquid-liquid reaction regime

J.M. Zaldivar, J.M. Zaldivar, E.J. Molga, M.A. Alos, F. Hernandez sanchez, H. Hernandez, K.R. Westerterp

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    50 Citations (Scopus)
    171 Downloads (Pure)


    Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid have been selected as a specific case of a heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme has been followed using adiabatic and heat-flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments has been carried out to study the influences of different initial and operating conditions such as temperature, stirring speed and sulphuric acid concentration. In parallel, a mathematical model to predict the overall conversion rate has been developed. In this paper the mathematical modelling and the implementation and experimental validation for benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene mononitration in the kinetic control regime (slow liquid-liquid reaction) are presented and discussed.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)543-559
    Number of pages17
    JournalChemical engineering and processing : process intensification
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 1995


    • METIS-105877
    • IR-10866

    Cite this