Attenuation of Tides and Surges by Mangroves: Contrasting Case Studies from New Zealand

John M. Montgomery (Corresponding Author), Karin R. Bryan, Erik Martijn Horstman, J. C. Mullarney

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Abstract

Mangroves have been suggested as an eco-defense strategy to dissipate tsunamis, storm surges, and king tides. As such, efforts have increased to replant forests along coasts that are vulnerable to flooding. The leafy canopies, stems, and aboveground root structures of mangroves limit water exchange across a forest, reducing flood amplitudes. The attenuation of long waves in mangroves was measured using cross-shore transects of pressure sensors in two contrasting environments in New Zealand, both characterized by mono-specific cultures of grey mangroves (Avicennia marina) and approximate cross-shore widths of 1 km. The first site, in the Firth of Thames, was characterized by mangrove trees with heights between 0.5 and 3 m, and pneumatophore roots with an average height of 0.2 m, and no substantial tidal drainage channels. Attenuation was measured during storm surge conditions. In this environment, the tidal and surge currents had no alternative pathway than to be forced into the high-drag mangrove vegetation. Observations showed that much of the dissipation occurred at the seaward fringe of the forest, with an average attenuation rate of 0.24 m/km across the forest width. The second site, in Tauranga harbor, was characterized by shorter mangroves between 0.3 and 1.2 m in height and deeply incised drainage channels. No attenuation of the flood tidal wave across the mangrove forest was measurable. Instead, flow preferentially propagated along the unvegetated low-drag channels, reaching the back of the forest much more efficiently than in the Firth of Thames. Our observations from sites with the same vegetation type suggest that mangrove properties are important to long wave dissipation only if water transport through the vegetation is a dominant mechanism of fluid transport. Therefore, realistic predictions of potential coastal protection should be made prior to extensive replanting efforts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1119
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalWater
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2018

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Tides
New Zealand
mangrove
tides
tide
Tsunamis
case studies
Avicennia
Drainage
Drag
Avicennia marina
drainage channels
Marinas
Water
Pressure sensors
Tidal Waves
Ports and harbors
Coastal zones
natural disaster
tsunamis

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Montgomery, John M. ; Bryan, Karin R. ; Horstman, Erik Martijn ; Mullarney, J. C. / Attenuation of Tides and Surges by Mangroves : Contrasting Case Studies from New Zealand. In: Water. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 9. pp. 1-16.
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abstract = "Mangroves have been suggested as an eco-defense strategy to dissipate tsunamis, storm surges, and king tides. As such, efforts have increased to replant forests along coasts that are vulnerable to flooding. The leafy canopies, stems, and aboveground root structures of mangroves limit water exchange across a forest, reducing flood amplitudes. The attenuation of long waves in mangroves was measured using cross-shore transects of pressure sensors in two contrasting environments in New Zealand, both characterized by mono-specific cultures of grey mangroves (Avicennia marina) and approximate cross-shore widths of 1 km. The first site, in the Firth of Thames, was characterized by mangrove trees with heights between 0.5 and 3 m, and pneumatophore roots with an average height of 0.2 m, and no substantial tidal drainage channels. Attenuation was measured during storm surge conditions. In this environment, the tidal and surge currents had no alternative pathway than to be forced into the high-drag mangrove vegetation. Observations showed that much of the dissipation occurred at the seaward fringe of the forest, with an average attenuation rate of 0.24 m/km across the forest width. The second site, in Tauranga harbor, was characterized by shorter mangroves between 0.3 and 1.2 m in height and deeply incised drainage channels. No attenuation of the flood tidal wave across the mangrove forest was measurable. Instead, flow preferentially propagated along the unvegetated low-drag channels, reaching the back of the forest much more efficiently than in the Firth of Thames. Our observations from sites with the same vegetation type suggest that mangrove properties are important to long wave dissipation only if water transport through the vegetation is a dominant mechanism of fluid transport. Therefore, realistic predictions of potential coastal protection should be made prior to extensive replanting efforts.",
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Attenuation of Tides and Surges by Mangroves : Contrasting Case Studies from New Zealand. / Montgomery, John M. (Corresponding Author); Bryan, Karin R.; Horstman, Erik Martijn; Mullarney, J. C.

In: Water, Vol. 10, No. 9, 1119, 23.08.2018, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Mullarney, J. C.

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