Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions

Jeroen Ponte, Ali Ghahremani, Maikel Huiskamp, Anne-Johan Annema, Bram Nauta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Highly efficient switch-mode Class-E power amplifiers (PAs) are sensitive to load impedance variations. For voltage standing wave ratios (VSWRs) up to 10:1, the peak switch voltage and average switch current can increase by a factor 1.7 and 2.5, respectively, with respect to the nominal load condition, thereby imposing serious reliability risks. This work introduces a technique to self-protect/self-heal Class-E PAs against the effects of load variations, with only a minor impact on output power and efficiency. To validate the proposed technique, load-pull measurements are conducted on a ClassE PA implemented in a standard 65nm CMOS technology, employing an off-chip matching network, augmented with a fully automated self-protective/self-healing control loop. Under nominal operating conditions, the PA provides 17.5dBm output power into 50Ω from a 1.2V supply with 67% efficiency when all the losses of the matching network are included. It is shown that the proposed self-protective PA can reduce its peak switch voltage to below the value allowed by the technology for all load mismatch conditions with VSWR up to 19:1 while output power and efficiency are not considerably affected. Furthermore, a PA with an average current safety factor of 2.5 can reliably handle VSWRs up to 19:1.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS)
PublisherIEEE
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-9562-3
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-9116-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2018
Event2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) - Palais des Congrès de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
Duration: 9 Dec 201812 Dec 2018
Conference number: 25
https://www.ieee-icecs2018.org/

Conference

Conference2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS)
Abbreviated titleICECS
CountryFrance
CityBordeaux
Period9/12/1812/12/18
Internet address

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Switches
Electric potential
Safety factor

Cite this

Ponte, J., Ghahremani, A., Huiskamp, M., Annema, A-J., & Nauta, B. (2018). Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions. In 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECS.2018.8617864
Ponte, Jeroen ; Ghahremani, Ali ; Huiskamp, Maikel ; Annema, Anne-Johan ; Nauta, Bram . / Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) . IEEE, 2018.
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title = "Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions",
abstract = "Highly efficient switch-mode Class-E power amplifiers (PAs) are sensitive to load impedance variations. For voltage standing wave ratios (VSWRs) up to 10:1, the peak switch voltage and average switch current can increase by a factor 1.7 and 2.5, respectively, with respect to the nominal load condition, thereby imposing serious reliability risks. This work introduces a technique to self-protect/self-heal Class-E PAs against the effects of load variations, with only a minor impact on output power and efficiency. To validate the proposed technique, load-pull measurements are conducted on a ClassE PA implemented in a standard 65nm CMOS technology, employing an off-chip matching network, augmented with a fully automated self-protective/self-healing control loop. Under nominal operating conditions, the PA provides 17.5dBm output power into 50Ω from a 1.2V supply with 67{\%} efficiency when all the losses of the matching network are included. It is shown that the proposed self-protective PA can reduce its peak switch voltage to below the value allowed by the technology for all load mismatch conditions with VSWR up to 19:1 while output power and efficiency are not considerably affected. Furthermore, a PA with an average current safety factor of 2.5 can reliably handle VSWRs up to 19:1.",
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Ponte, J, Ghahremani, A, Huiskamp, M, Annema, A-J & Nauta, B 2018, Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions. in 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) . IEEE, 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), Bordeaux, France, 9/12/18. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECS.2018.8617864

Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions. / Ponte, Jeroen; Ghahremani, Ali ; Huiskamp, Maikel ; Annema, Anne-Johan; Nauta, Bram .

2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) . IEEE, 2018.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Huiskamp, Maikel

AU - Annema, Anne-Johan

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PY - 2018/12/10

Y1 - 2018/12/10

N2 - Highly efficient switch-mode Class-E power amplifiers (PAs) are sensitive to load impedance variations. For voltage standing wave ratios (VSWRs) up to 10:1, the peak switch voltage and average switch current can increase by a factor 1.7 and 2.5, respectively, with respect to the nominal load condition, thereby imposing serious reliability risks. This work introduces a technique to self-protect/self-heal Class-E PAs against the effects of load variations, with only a minor impact on output power and efficiency. To validate the proposed technique, load-pull measurements are conducted on a ClassE PA implemented in a standard 65nm CMOS technology, employing an off-chip matching network, augmented with a fully automated self-protective/self-healing control loop. Under nominal operating conditions, the PA provides 17.5dBm output power into 50Ω from a 1.2V supply with 67% efficiency when all the losses of the matching network are included. It is shown that the proposed self-protective PA can reduce its peak switch voltage to below the value allowed by the technology for all load mismatch conditions with VSWR up to 19:1 while output power and efficiency are not considerably affected. Furthermore, a PA with an average current safety factor of 2.5 can reliably handle VSWRs up to 19:1.

AB - Highly efficient switch-mode Class-E power amplifiers (PAs) are sensitive to load impedance variations. For voltage standing wave ratios (VSWRs) up to 10:1, the peak switch voltage and average switch current can increase by a factor 1.7 and 2.5, respectively, with respect to the nominal load condition, thereby imposing serious reliability risks. This work introduces a technique to self-protect/self-heal Class-E PAs against the effects of load variations, with only a minor impact on output power and efficiency. To validate the proposed technique, load-pull measurements are conducted on a ClassE PA implemented in a standard 65nm CMOS technology, employing an off-chip matching network, augmented with a fully automated self-protective/self-healing control loop. Under nominal operating conditions, the PA provides 17.5dBm output power into 50Ω from a 1.2V supply with 67% efficiency when all the losses of the matching network are included. It is shown that the proposed self-protective PA can reduce its peak switch voltage to below the value allowed by the technology for all load mismatch conditions with VSWR up to 19:1 while output power and efficiency are not considerably affected. Furthermore, a PA with an average current safety factor of 2.5 can reliably handle VSWRs up to 19:1.

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Ponte J, Ghahremani A, Huiskamp M, Annema A-J, Nauta B. Augmentation of Class-E PA reliability under load mismatch conditions. In 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) . IEEE. 2018 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECS.2018.8617864