Highly efﬁcient switch-mode Class-E power ampliﬁers (PAs) are sensitive to load impedance variations. For voltage standing wave ratios (VSWRs) up to 10:1, the peak switch voltage and average switch current can increase by a factor 1.7 and 2.5, respectively, with respect to the nominal load condition, thereby imposing serious reliability risks. This work introduces a technique to self-protect/self-heal Class-E PAs against the effects of load variations, with only a minor impact on output power and efﬁciency. To validate the proposed technique, load-pull measurements are conducted on a ClassE PA implemented in a standard 65nm CMOS technology, employing an off-chip matching network, augmented with a fully automated self-protective/self-healing control loop. Under nominal operating conditions, the PA provides 17.5dBm output power into 50Ω from a 1.2V supply with 67% efﬁciency when all the losses of the matching network are included. It is shown that the proposed self-protective PA can reduce its peak switch voltage to below the value allowed by the technology for all load mismatch conditions with VSWR up to 19:1 while output power and efﬁciency are not considerably affected. Furthermore, a PA with an average current safety factor of 2.5 can reliably handle VSWRs up to 19:1.
|Title of host publication||2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS)|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Dec 2018|
|Event||2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS) - Palais des Congrès de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France|
Duration: 9 Dec 2018 → 12 Dec 2018
Conference number: 25
|Conference||2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS)|
|Period||9/12/18 → 12/12/18|