Automotive Security Functions; The Use of New Technologies to Tackle Vehicle-Related Crime

Peter Knapik

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UTAcademic

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Abstract

Daily life is increasingly penetrated by new technologies. Advanced driver assistance systems with sophisticated sensors are increasingly available in all classes of vehicles. Moreover, mobile devices, such as smartphones, have become our daily companions. With the help of wireless communication technologies, our society and mobility have become increasingly connected. Based on these technologies, industry and academia have developed applications within the automotive field to provide customers with improved traffic efficiency, infotainment features and driver assistance. Vehicle-related crime as well as fear of vehicle-related crime are omnipresent in our society. They result in personal injury, economic losses and reduced quality of life. Vehicle-related crime is a worldwide problem beyond national borders. Since criminals usually adjust their skills to overcome countermeasures, continuous development towards more innovative secu- rity measures is necessary to counteract them. Until now, existing countermeasures dealing with vehicle-related crime are mostly concentrated on the vehicle itself and focus on physical target hardening. Neither occupants, infrastructure nor other vehicles are involved to counter- act vehicle-related crime collaboratively. To close this gap, we focus on automotive security functions. These functions make use of new technical capabilities of modern vehicles and consumer electronics to tackle vehicle-related crime, decrease fear of crime and provide tangibility of security to customers. In this thesis, we focus on the identification of potential security functions in a structured way and the pre-emptive evaluation of security functions, i.e., estimating the (expected) effective- ness before a security function is entirely developed and deployed. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: •We propose a definition of automotive security functions and vehicle-related crime to establish a fourth class of applications besides infotainment, traffic efficiency and assis- tance applications. •We analyze statistical crime data from several countries as well as data from existing victimization surveys to gain a deeper understanding of vehicle-related crime. Addi- tionally, we conduct a victimization survey in Germany, the USA and Mexico to gain further insights into (fear of) vehicle-related crime. Making use of the same methodol- ogy in all three countries, we are able to compare findings across these countries. •We propose a methodology which uses both the crime script concept and the 25 tech- niques of situational crime prevention to identify security functions in a structured way. To support the structured identification, we provide a hierarchical classification of vehicle- related crime as well as a categorization of existing countermeasures and new technolo- gies. •We develop four vehicle-related crime scripts and subsequently apply our methodology. We identify and propose six potential security functions, thus showing the suitability of our methodology. •We design two security functions, namely the cooperative home light (CHL) and the electronic decal (ED). We identify and analyze the underlying technologies and show the feasibility of implementing both security functions. The CHL aims to provide improved lighting to the driver when going to or from their vehicle by involving neighboring ve- hicles to provide lighting. The ED continuously broadcasts a request that the vehicle be stopped and checked by police when it is illegally moved. •We evaluate the CHL and ED with respect to the (expected) effectiveness with the help of several approaches. First, we transfer the existing results from similar countermeasures to our security functions. Second, we conduct a customer study to rate the effectiveness of reducing the fear of crime, the expected effectiveness of fighting crime and attitudes towards the CHL and ED. Third, interviewed experts assess the potential of our security functions to fight crime. Last, we propose defining measurable criteria which represent the effectiveness of both security functions. As a proof of concept, we implement a sim- ulation environment in order to simulate the CHL to estimate its effectiveness. Using these contributions, interest groups such as car manufacturers can develop supplemen- tal security measures and provide customers with tangible security functions. With this work, we pursue the goal of contributing to combat vehicle-related crime and make our mobility more secure.
Original languageUndefined
Awarding Institution
  • University of Twente
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Kargl, Frank, Supervisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date29 Jan 2016
Place of PublicationEnschede
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-90-365-4010-0
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jan 2016

Keywords

  • Automotive
  • IR-99154
  • METIS-314793
  • Vehicle
  • SCS-Cybersecurity
  • Functions
  • EWI-26723
  • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/269994
  • Security

Cite this

Knapik, Peter. / Automotive Security Functions; The Use of New Technologies to Tackle Vehicle-Related Crime. Enschede : Universiteit Twente, 2016. 268 p.
@phdthesis{604f90d74f1c4742a3142650f788aade,
title = "Automotive Security Functions; The Use of New Technologies to Tackle Vehicle-Related Crime",
abstract = "Daily life is increasingly penetrated by new technologies. Advanced driver assistance systems with sophisticated sensors are increasingly available in all classes of vehicles. Moreover, mobile devices, such as smartphones, have become our daily companions. With the help of wireless communication technologies, our society and mobility have become increasingly connected. Based on these technologies, industry and academia have developed applications within the automotive field to provide customers with improved traffic efficiency, infotainment features and driver assistance. Vehicle-related crime as well as fear of vehicle-related crime are omnipresent in our society. They result in personal injury, economic losses and reduced quality of life. Vehicle-related crime is a worldwide problem beyond national borders. Since criminals usually adjust their skills to overcome countermeasures, continuous development towards more innovative secu- rity measures is necessary to counteract them. Until now, existing countermeasures dealing with vehicle-related crime are mostly concentrated on the vehicle itself and focus on physical target hardening. Neither occupants, infrastructure nor other vehicles are involved to counter- act vehicle-related crime collaboratively. To close this gap, we focus on automotive security functions. These functions make use of new technical capabilities of modern vehicles and consumer electronics to tackle vehicle-related crime, decrease fear of crime and provide tangibility of security to customers. In this thesis, we focus on the identification of potential security functions in a structured way and the pre-emptive evaluation of security functions, i.e., estimating the (expected) effective- ness before a security function is entirely developed and deployed. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: •We propose a definition of automotive security functions and vehicle-related crime to establish a fourth class of applications besides infotainment, traffic efficiency and assis- tance applications. •We analyze statistical crime data from several countries as well as data from existing victimization surveys to gain a deeper understanding of vehicle-related crime. Addi- tionally, we conduct a victimization survey in Germany, the USA and Mexico to gain further insights into (fear of) vehicle-related crime. Making use of the same methodol- ogy in all three countries, we are able to compare findings across these countries. •We propose a methodology which uses both the crime script concept and the 25 tech- niques of situational crime prevention to identify security functions in a structured way. To support the structured identification, we provide a hierarchical classification of vehicle- related crime as well as a categorization of existing countermeasures and new technolo- gies. •We develop four vehicle-related crime scripts and subsequently apply our methodology. We identify and propose six potential security functions, thus showing the suitability of our methodology. •We design two security functions, namely the cooperative home light (CHL) and the electronic decal (ED). We identify and analyze the underlying technologies and show the feasibility of implementing both security functions. The CHL aims to provide improved lighting to the driver when going to or from their vehicle by involving neighboring ve- hicles to provide lighting. The ED continuously broadcasts a request that the vehicle be stopped and checked by police when it is illegally moved. •We evaluate the CHL and ED with respect to the (expected) effectiveness with the help of several approaches. First, we transfer the existing results from similar countermeasures to our security functions. Second, we conduct a customer study to rate the effectiveness of reducing the fear of crime, the expected effectiveness of fighting crime and attitudes towards the CHL and ED. Third, interviewed experts assess the potential of our security functions to fight crime. Last, we propose defining measurable criteria which represent the effectiveness of both security functions. As a proof of concept, we implement a sim- ulation environment in order to simulate the CHL to estimate its effectiveness. Using these contributions, interest groups such as car manufacturers can develop supplemen- tal security measures and provide customers with tangible security functions. With this work, we pursue the goal of contributing to combat vehicle-related crime and make our mobility more secure.",
keywords = "Automotive, IR-99154, METIS-314793, Vehicle, SCS-Cybersecurity, Functions, EWI-26723, EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/269994, Security",
author = "Peter Knapik",
note = "eemcs-eprint-26723",
year = "2016",
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day = "29",
doi = "10.3990/1.9789036540100",
language = "Undefined",
isbn = "978-90-365-4010-0",
publisher = "Universiteit Twente",
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Automotive Security Functions; The Use of New Technologies to Tackle Vehicle-Related Crime. / Knapik, Peter.

Enschede : Universiteit Twente, 2016. 268 p.

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UTAcademic

TY - THES

T1 - Automotive Security Functions; The Use of New Technologies to Tackle Vehicle-Related Crime

AU - Knapik, Peter

N1 - eemcs-eprint-26723

PY - 2016/1/29

Y1 - 2016/1/29

N2 - Daily life is increasingly penetrated by new technologies. Advanced driver assistance systems with sophisticated sensors are increasingly available in all classes of vehicles. Moreover, mobile devices, such as smartphones, have become our daily companions. With the help of wireless communication technologies, our society and mobility have become increasingly connected. Based on these technologies, industry and academia have developed applications within the automotive field to provide customers with improved traffic efficiency, infotainment features and driver assistance. Vehicle-related crime as well as fear of vehicle-related crime are omnipresent in our society. They result in personal injury, economic losses and reduced quality of life. Vehicle-related crime is a worldwide problem beyond national borders. Since criminals usually adjust their skills to overcome countermeasures, continuous development towards more innovative secu- rity measures is necessary to counteract them. Until now, existing countermeasures dealing with vehicle-related crime are mostly concentrated on the vehicle itself and focus on physical target hardening. Neither occupants, infrastructure nor other vehicles are involved to counter- act vehicle-related crime collaboratively. To close this gap, we focus on automotive security functions. These functions make use of new technical capabilities of modern vehicles and consumer electronics to tackle vehicle-related crime, decrease fear of crime and provide tangibility of security to customers. In this thesis, we focus on the identification of potential security functions in a structured way and the pre-emptive evaluation of security functions, i.e., estimating the (expected) effective- ness before a security function is entirely developed and deployed. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: •We propose a definition of automotive security functions and vehicle-related crime to establish a fourth class of applications besides infotainment, traffic efficiency and assis- tance applications. •We analyze statistical crime data from several countries as well as data from existing victimization surveys to gain a deeper understanding of vehicle-related crime. Addi- tionally, we conduct a victimization survey in Germany, the USA and Mexico to gain further insights into (fear of) vehicle-related crime. Making use of the same methodol- ogy in all three countries, we are able to compare findings across these countries. •We propose a methodology which uses both the crime script concept and the 25 tech- niques of situational crime prevention to identify security functions in a structured way. To support the structured identification, we provide a hierarchical classification of vehicle- related crime as well as a categorization of existing countermeasures and new technolo- gies. •We develop four vehicle-related crime scripts and subsequently apply our methodology. We identify and propose six potential security functions, thus showing the suitability of our methodology. •We design two security functions, namely the cooperative home light (CHL) and the electronic decal (ED). We identify and analyze the underlying technologies and show the feasibility of implementing both security functions. The CHL aims to provide improved lighting to the driver when going to or from their vehicle by involving neighboring ve- hicles to provide lighting. The ED continuously broadcasts a request that the vehicle be stopped and checked by police when it is illegally moved. •We evaluate the CHL and ED with respect to the (expected) effectiveness with the help of several approaches. First, we transfer the existing results from similar countermeasures to our security functions. Second, we conduct a customer study to rate the effectiveness of reducing the fear of crime, the expected effectiveness of fighting crime and attitudes towards the CHL and ED. Third, interviewed experts assess the potential of our security functions to fight crime. Last, we propose defining measurable criteria which represent the effectiveness of both security functions. As a proof of concept, we implement a sim- ulation environment in order to simulate the CHL to estimate its effectiveness. Using these contributions, interest groups such as car manufacturers can develop supplemen- tal security measures and provide customers with tangible security functions. With this work, we pursue the goal of contributing to combat vehicle-related crime and make our mobility more secure.

AB - Daily life is increasingly penetrated by new technologies. Advanced driver assistance systems with sophisticated sensors are increasingly available in all classes of vehicles. Moreover, mobile devices, such as smartphones, have become our daily companions. With the help of wireless communication technologies, our society and mobility have become increasingly connected. Based on these technologies, industry and academia have developed applications within the automotive field to provide customers with improved traffic efficiency, infotainment features and driver assistance. Vehicle-related crime as well as fear of vehicle-related crime are omnipresent in our society. They result in personal injury, economic losses and reduced quality of life. Vehicle-related crime is a worldwide problem beyond national borders. Since criminals usually adjust their skills to overcome countermeasures, continuous development towards more innovative secu- rity measures is necessary to counteract them. Until now, existing countermeasures dealing with vehicle-related crime are mostly concentrated on the vehicle itself and focus on physical target hardening. Neither occupants, infrastructure nor other vehicles are involved to counter- act vehicle-related crime collaboratively. To close this gap, we focus on automotive security functions. These functions make use of new technical capabilities of modern vehicles and consumer electronics to tackle vehicle-related crime, decrease fear of crime and provide tangibility of security to customers. In this thesis, we focus on the identification of potential security functions in a structured way and the pre-emptive evaluation of security functions, i.e., estimating the (expected) effective- ness before a security function is entirely developed and deployed. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: •We propose a definition of automotive security functions and vehicle-related crime to establish a fourth class of applications besides infotainment, traffic efficiency and assis- tance applications. •We analyze statistical crime data from several countries as well as data from existing victimization surveys to gain a deeper understanding of vehicle-related crime. Addi- tionally, we conduct a victimization survey in Germany, the USA and Mexico to gain further insights into (fear of) vehicle-related crime. Making use of the same methodol- ogy in all three countries, we are able to compare findings across these countries. •We propose a methodology which uses both the crime script concept and the 25 tech- niques of situational crime prevention to identify security functions in a structured way. To support the structured identification, we provide a hierarchical classification of vehicle- related crime as well as a categorization of existing countermeasures and new technolo- gies. •We develop four vehicle-related crime scripts and subsequently apply our methodology. We identify and propose six potential security functions, thus showing the suitability of our methodology. •We design two security functions, namely the cooperative home light (CHL) and the electronic decal (ED). We identify and analyze the underlying technologies and show the feasibility of implementing both security functions. The CHL aims to provide improved lighting to the driver when going to or from their vehicle by involving neighboring ve- hicles to provide lighting. The ED continuously broadcasts a request that the vehicle be stopped and checked by police when it is illegally moved. •We evaluate the CHL and ED with respect to the (expected) effectiveness with the help of several approaches. First, we transfer the existing results from similar countermeasures to our security functions. Second, we conduct a customer study to rate the effectiveness of reducing the fear of crime, the expected effectiveness of fighting crime and attitudes towards the CHL and ED. Third, interviewed experts assess the potential of our security functions to fight crime. Last, we propose defining measurable criteria which represent the effectiveness of both security functions. As a proof of concept, we implement a sim- ulation environment in order to simulate the CHL to estimate its effectiveness. Using these contributions, interest groups such as car manufacturers can develop supplemen- tal security measures and provide customers with tangible security functions. With this work, we pursue the goal of contributing to combat vehicle-related crime and make our mobility more secure.

KW - Automotive

KW - IR-99154

KW - METIS-314793

KW - Vehicle

KW - SCS-Cybersecurity

KW - Functions

KW - EWI-26723

KW - EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/269994

KW - Security

U2 - 10.3990/1.9789036540100

DO - 10.3990/1.9789036540100

M3 - PhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

SN - 978-90-365-4010-0

PB - Universiteit Twente

CY - Enschede

ER -