Backchannel Strategies for Artificial Listeners

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    We evaluate multimodal rule-based strategies for backchannel (BC) generation in face-to-face conversations. Such strategies can be used by artificial listeners to determine when to produce a BC in dialogs with human speakers. In this research, we consider features from the speaker’s speech and gaze. We used six rule-based strategies to determine the placement of BCs. The BCs were performed by an intelligent virtual agent using nods and vocalizations. In a user perception experiment, participants were shown video fragments of a human speaker together with an artificial listener who produced BC behavior according to one of the strategies. Participants were asked to rate how likely they thought the BC behavior had been performed by a human listener. We found that the number, timing and type of BC had a significant effect on how human-like the BC behavior was perceived.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA)
    EditorsJan Allbeck, Norman Badler, Timothy Bickmore, Catherine Pelachaud, Alla Safonova
    Place of PublicationBerlin
    Number of pages13
    ISBN (Print)978-3-642-15891-9
    Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010
    Event10th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2010 - Philadelphia, United States
    Duration: 20 Sept 201022 Sept 2010
    Conference number: 10

    Publication series

    NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
    PublisherSpringer Verlag


    Conference10th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2010
    Abbreviated titleIVA
    Country/TerritoryUnited States


    • IR-73095
    • METIS-271024
    • Artificial Listener
    • Backchannel
    • HMI-IA: Intelligent Agents
    • Perception
    • Nod
    • EWI-18440
    • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/211486
    • Continuer

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