Balancing Wind and Batteries: Towards Predictive Verification of Smart Grids

Thom S. Badings*, Arnd Hartmanns, Nils Jansen, Marnix Suilen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
94 Downloads (Pure)


We study a smart grid with wind power and battery storage. Traditionally, day-ahead planning aims to balance demand and wind power, yet actual wind conditions often deviate from forecasts. Short-term flexibility in storage and generation fills potential gaps, planned on a minutes time scale for 30–60 min horizons. Finding the optimal flexibility deployment requires solving a semi-infinite non-convex stochastic program, which is generally intractable to do exactly. Previous approaches rely on sampling, yet such critical problems call for rigorous approaches with stronger guarantees. Our method employs probabilistic model checking techniques. First, we cast the problem as a continuous-space Markov decision process with discretized control, for which an optimal deployment strategy minimizes the expected grid frequency deviation. To mitigate state space explosion, we exploit specific structural properties of the model to implement an iterative exploration method that reuses pre-computed values as wind data is updated. Our experiments show the method’s feasibility and versatility across grid configurations and time scales.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNASA Formal Methods
Subtitle of host publication13th International Symposium, NFM 2021, Virtual Event, May 24–28, 2021, Proceedings
EditorsAaron Dutle, Mariano M. Moscato, Laura Titolo, César A. Muñoz, Ivan Perez
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-76384-8
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-76383-1
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2021
Event13th International Symposium on NASA Formal Methods, NFM 2021 - Virtual Event
Duration: 24 May 202128 May 2021
Conference number: 13

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science


Conference13th International Symposium on NASA Formal Methods, NFM 2021
Abbreviated titleNFM 2021
CityVirtual Event


Dive into the research topics of 'Balancing Wind and Batteries: Towards Predictive Verification of Smart Grids'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this