Baseline and early digital [18F]FDG PET/CT and multiparametric MRI contain promising features to predict response to neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer patients: a pilot study

Floris A. Vuijk, Shirin Feshtali Shahbazi, Wyanne A. Noortman, Floris H.P. van Velden, Petra Dibbets-Schneider, Andreas W.K.S. Marinelli, Peter A. Neijenhuis, Roderick Schmitz, Eidrees Ghariq, Laura A. Velema, Femke P. Peters, Frits Smit, Koen C.M.J. Peeters, Sofieke J.D. Temmink, Stijn A.L.P. Crobach, Hein Putter, Alexander L. Vahrmeijer, Denise E. Hilling, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Objective In this pilot study, we investigated the feasibility of response prediction using digital [18F]FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) and multiparametric MRI before, during, and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients and aimed to select the most promising imaging modalities and timepoints for further investigation in a larger trial. Methods Rectal cancer patients scheduled to undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy were prospectively included in this trial, and underwent multiparametric MRI and [18F]FDG PET/CT before, 2 weeks into, and 6-8 weeks after chemoradiation therapy. Two groups were created based on pathological tumor regression grade, that is, good responders (TRG1-2) and poor responders (TRG3-5). Using binary logistic regression analysis with a cutoff value of P ≤ 0.2, promising predictive features for response were selected. Results Nineteen patients were included. Of these, 5 were good responders, and 14 were poor responders. Patient characteristics of these groups were similar at baseline. Fifty-seven features were extracted, of which 13 were found to be promising predictors of response. Baseline [T2: volume, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mean, DWI: difference entropy], early response (T2: volume change, DWI: ADC mean change) and end-of-treatment presurgical evaluation MRI (T2: gray level nonuniformity, DWI: inverse difference normalized, DWI: gray level nonuniformity normalized), as well as baseline (metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis) and early response PET/CT (Δ maximum standardized uptake value, Δ peak standardized uptake value corrected for lean body mass), were promising features. Conclusion Both multiparametric MRI and [18F]FDG PET/CT contain promising imaging features to predict response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in LARC patients. A future larger trial should investigate baseline, early response, and end-of-treatment presurgical evaluation MRI and baseline and early response PET/CT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)613-621
Number of pages9
JournalNuclear medicine communications
Volume44
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Computed tomography
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose
  • Multiparametric resonance imaging
  • Neoadjuvant therapy
  • PET
  • Rectal neoplasms

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