Best practice for de-vulcanization of waste passenger car tire rubber granulate using 2-20-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulfide as de-vulcanization agent in a twin-screw extruder

Hans Van Hoek, Jacques Noordermeer, Geert Heideman, Anke Blume, Wilma Dierkes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
78 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

De-vulcanization of rubber has been shown to be a viable process to reuse this valuable material. The purpose of the de-vulcanization is to release the crosslinked nature of the highly elastic tire rubber granulate. For present day passenger car tires containing the synthetic rubbers Styrene- Butadiene Rubber (SBR) and Butadiene Rubber (BR) and a high amount of silica as reinforcing filler, producing high quality devulcanizate is a major challenge. In previous research a thermo-chemical mechanical approach was developed, using a twin-screw extruder and diphenyldisulfide (DPDS) as de-vulcanization agent.The screw configuration was designed for low shear in order to protect the polymers from chain scission, or uncontrolled spontaneuous recombination which is the largest problem involved in de-vulcanization of passenger car tire rubber. Because of disadvantages of DPDS for commercial use, 2-20-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulfide (DBD) was used in the present study. Due to its high melting point of 140 °C the twin-screw extruder process needed to be redesigned. Subsequent milling of the devulcanizate at 60 °C with a narrow gap-width between the mill rolls greatly improved the quality of the devulcanizate in terms of coherence and tensile properties after renewed vulcanization. As the composition of passenger car tire granulate is very complex, the usefulness of the Horikx-Verbruggen analysis as optimization parameter for the de-vulcanization process was limited. Instead, stress-strain properties of re-vulcanized de-vulcanizates were used. The capacity of the twin-screw extruder was limited by the required residence time, implying a low screw speed. A best tensile strength of 8MPa at a strain at break of 160% of the unblended renewed vulcanizate was found under optimal conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1139
Number of pages25
JournalPolymers
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2021

Keywords

  • De-vulcanization
  • Passenger car tire
  • Recycling
  • Sustainability
  • Twin-screw extruder
  • UT-Gold-D

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