In this paper, a two-layer approach is presented to guarantee the stable behavior of bilateral telemanipulation sys- tems in the presence of time-varying destabilizing factors such as hard contacts, relaxed user grasps, stiff control settings, and/or communication delays. The approach splits the control architec- ture into two separate layers. The hierarchical top layer is used to implement a strategy that addresses the desired transparency, and the lower layer ensures that no “virtual‿ energy is generated. This means that any bilateral controller can be implemented in a passive manner. Separate communication channels connect the layers at the slave and master sides so that information related to exchanged energy is completely separated from information about the desired behavior. Furthermore, the proposed implementation does not depend on any type of assumption about the time delay in the communication channel. By complete separation of the proper- ties of passivity and transparency, each layer can accommodate any number of different implementations that allow for almost inde- pendent optimization. Experimental results are presented, which highlight the benefit of the proposed framework.
- Bilateral control
- time delay