Fibrosis, characterized by progressive tissue stiffening resulting in organ failure, is a growing health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Currently, therapeutic options for tissue fibrosis are severely limited and organ transplantation is the only effective treatment for the end-stage fibrotic diseases with inherent limitations. Recent advancements in engineered 3D in vitro human disease mimic models, recapitulating the tissue pathophysiology, have provided unique state-of-the-art platforms for: (i) understanding the biological mechanisms involved in the disease pathogenesis; and (ii) high-throughput and reproducible drug screening. This review focuses on the recent multidisciplinary developments made towards advanced 3D biomimetic fibrotic tissue (liver, kidney, and lung) models that combine highly precision manufacturing techniques with high cellular functionality and biophysical (mechanical) properties.
- tissue models