Adhesion to wet and dynamic surfaces is vital for many biomedical applications. However, the development of effective tissue adhesives has been challenged by the required combination of properties, which includes mechanical similarity to the native tissue, high adhesion to wet surfaces, hemostatic properties, biodegradability, high biocompatibility, and ease of use. In this study, we report a novel bioinspired design with bioionic liquid (BIL) conjugated polymers to engineer multifunctional highly sticky, biodegradable, biocompatible, and hemostatic adhesives. Choline-based BIL is a structural precursor of the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane. We show that the conjugation of choline molecules to naturally derived polymers (i.e., gelatin) and synthetic polymers (i.e., polyethylene glycol) significantly increases their adhesive strength and hemostatic properties. Synthetic or natural polymers and BILs were mixed at room temperature and cross-linked via visible light photopolymerization to make hydrogels with tunable mechanical, physical, adhesive, and hemostatic properties. The hydrogel adhesive exhibits a close to 50% decrease in the total blood volume loss in tail cut and liver laceration rat animal models compared to the control. This technology platform for adhesives is expected to have further reaching application vistas from tissue repair to wound dressings and the attachment of flexible electronics.
- Bioionic liquid
- Traumatic injury