Biomimetic composite coating on rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

M. Tarik Arafat, Christopher X.F. Lam, Andrew K. Ekaputra, Siew Yee Wong, Xu Li*, Ian Gibson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

105 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this present study was to improve the functional performance of rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering through biomimetic composite coating. Rapid prototyped poly(-caprolactone)/tri-calcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using the screw extrusion system (SES). The fabricated PCL/TCP scaffolds were coated with a carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA)-gelatin composite via biomimetic co-precipitation. The structure of the prepared CHA-gelatin composite coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the coating process did not have any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The cell-scaffold interaction was studied by culturing porcine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the scaffolds and assessing the proliferation and bone-related gene and protein expression capabilities of the cells. Confocal laser microscopy and SEM images of the cell-scaffold constructs showed a uniformly distributed cell sheet and accumulation of extracellular matrix in the interior of CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. The proliferation rate of BMSCs on CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds was about 2.3 and 1.7 times higher than that on PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds, respectively, by day 10. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs the most, compared with PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. These results demonstrate that CHA-gelatin composite-coated rapid prototyped PCL/TCP scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-820
Number of pages12
JournalActa biomaterialia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011


  • Biomimetic composite coating
  • Bone tissue engineering
  • Carbonated hydroxyapatite-gelatin composite
  • Rapid prototyping scaffolds


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