Nanotheranostics is a rapidly growing field combining disease diagnosis and therapy, which ultimately may add in the development of ‘personalized medicine’. Here, we designed and developed bioresponsive and fluorescent hyaluronic acid-iodixanol nanogels (HAI-NGs) for targeted X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and chemotherapy of MCF-7 human breast tumors. HAI-NGs were obtained with a small size of ca. 90 nm, bright green fluoresence and high serum stability from hyaluronic acid-cystamine-tetrazole and reductively degradable polyiodixanol-methacrylate via nanoprecipitation and a photo-click crosslinking reaction. Notably, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded HAI-NGs showed a fast glutathione-responsive drug release. Confocal microscopy displayed efficient uptake of HAI-NGs by CD44 overexpressing MCF-7 cells via a receptor-mediated mechanism. MTT assays revealed that HAI-NGs were nontoxic to MCF-7 cells even at a high concentration of 1 mg/mL whereas PTX-loaded HAI-NGs exhibited strong inhibition of MCF-7 cells. The in vivo pharmcokinetics, near-infrared imaging and biodistribution studies revealed that HAI-NGs significantly prolonged the blood circulation time and enhanced tumor accumulation of PTX. Interestingly, significantly enhanced CT imaging was observed for MCF-7 breast tumors in nude mice via either intratumoral or intravenous injection of HAI-NGs as compared to iodixanol. HAI-NGs fluoresence was distributed thoughout the whole tumor indicating deep tumor penetration. PTX-loaded HAI-NGs showed effective suppression of tumor growth with little systemic toxicity. HAI-NGs appear as a “smart” theranostic nanoplatform for the treatment of CD44 positive tumors.