A study of the preparative variables in the synthesis of ceramics based on Bi2O3-Er2O3 solid solutions has shown that the best results are obtained with a coprecipitation method. Critical parameters in the synthesis are found to be i) wet milling of the precalcined powder with an appropriate liquid and ii) calcining and sintering temperatures. With the proposed method it is possible to produce monophasic, contamination free, dense and machineable ceramics suitable for practical applications.
Kruidhof, H., Seshan, K., Lippens Jr., B. C., Gellings, P. J., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1987). Bismuth oxide based ceramics with improved electrical and mechanical properties: Part I. Preparation and characterisation. Materials research bulletin, 22(12), 1635-1643. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5408(87)90006-7