Blending Electronics with the Human Body: A Pathway toward a Cybernetic Future

Mehdi Mehrali, Sara Bagherifard, Mohsen Akbari, Ashish Thakur, Bahram Mirani, Mohammad Mehrali, Masoud Hasany, Gorka Orive, Paramita Das, Jenny Emneus, Thomas L. Andresen, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


At the crossroads of chemistry, electronics, mechanical engineering, polymer science, biology, tissue engineering, computer science, and materials science, electrical devices are currently being engineered that blend directly within organs and tissues. These sophisticated devices are mediators, recorders, and stimulators of electricity with the capacity to monitor important electrophysiological events, replace disabled body parts, or even stimulate tissues to overcome their current limitations. They are therefore capable of leading humanity forward into the age of cyborgs, a time in which human biology can be hacked at will to yield beings with abilities beyond their natural capabilities. The resulting advances have been made possible by the emergence of conformal and soft electronic materials that can readily integrate with the curvilinear, dynamic, delicate, and flexible human body. This article discusses the recent rapid pace of development in the field of cybernetics with special emphasis on the important role that flexible and electrically active materials have played therein.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700931
JournalAdvanced science
Issue number10
Early online date1 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • conductive polymers
  • cyborganics
  • flexible bioelectronics
  • nanomaterials
  • wearable healthcare monitors


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