Blockchain urbanism: Evolving geographies of libertarian exit and technopolitical failure

Casey R. Lynch*, Alex Muñoz-Viso

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)
    9 Downloads (Pure)


    Libertarian “exit” imaginaries project new social, political, and economic structures separate from existing institutions in which “sovereign individuals” can opt-in to the governing system that fits their ideals. This paper traces libertarian exit imaginaries through a variety of territorial and technological projects. Demonstrating how these imaginaries evolve, it describes a recent proposal to build a semi-autonomous, blockchain-based smart city in Nevada. Reflecting on these projects, the paper highlights (1) their inevitable failure as they confront reality, (2) their role as spectacle, spreading libertarian ideology, and (3) their real-life impacts on distinct places and communities even when they fail or never materialize.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalProgress in Human Geography
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 4 Dec 2023


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