Blood Flow Quantification with High-Frame-Rate, Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Velocimetry in Stented Aortoiliac Arteries: In Vivo Feasibility

Stefan Engelhard*, Majorie van Helvert, Jason Voorneveld, Johan G. Bosch, Guillaume Lajoinie, Erik Groot Jebbink, Michel M.P.J. Reijnen, Michel Versluis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Local flow patterns influence stent patency, while blood flow quantification in stents is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 2-D blood flow quantification using high-frame-rate, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (HFR-CEUS) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), or echoPIV, in patients with aortoiliac stents. HFR-CEUS measurements were performed at 129 locations in 62 patients. Two-dimensional blood flow velocity fields were obtained using echoPIV. Visual inspection was performed by five observers to evaluate feasibility. The contrast-to-background ratio and average vector correlation were calculated and compared between stented and native vessel segments. Flow quantification with echoPIV was feasible in 128 of 129 locations (99%), with optimal quantification in 40 of 129 locations (31%). Partial quantification was achieved in 88 of 129 locations (68%), where one or multiple limiting issues occurred (not related to the stent) including loss of correlation during systole (57/129), short vessel segments (20/129), loss of contrast during diastole (20/129) and shadow regions (20/129). The contrast-to-background ratio and vector correlation were lower downstream in the imaged blood vessel, independent of the location of the stent. In conclusion, echoPIV was feasible in stents placed in the aortoiliac region, and the stents did not adversely affect flow tracking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1518-1527
Number of pages10
JournalUltrasound in medicine and biology
Volume48
Issue number8
Early online date13 May 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • Aortoiliac occlusive disease
  • Arterial stenting
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound
  • Endovascular treatment
  • High frame rate
  • Particle image velocimetry
  • UT-Hybrid-D

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