Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection

Agata Šakić*, Lis K. Nanver, Tom L.M. Scholtes, Carel Th H. Heerkens, Tihomir Knežević, Gerard Van Veen, Kees Kooijman, Patrick Vogelsang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Silicon photodiodes for use as low-energy electron detectors have been fabricated using a pure-boron technology to form the p+-anode region. The diode I-V characteristics are ideal and uniform over the wafer with low dark currents in the range of 0.6 pA/mm2. An extremely small thickness of the front-entrance window dead layers was achieved for a 1.8 nm B-layer deposition at 700 °C. All other processing layers on the photosensitive surface were removed using selective wet-etching to the B-layer, a process which is studied here with respect to residues and pitting effects that can result from the etching of Al to the B-layer. For the most optimal photodiode, a high relative electron signal gain is obtained: 60% at 500 eV, and 74% at 1 keV. The degradation of the dark current of B-layer photodiodes is examined for 10-min-long irradiation with 1-25 keV electron energies and stable performance is observed provided that the perimeter isolation-oxide is not exposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-44
Number of pages7
JournalSolid-state electronics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Boron deposition
  • Dark current degradation
  • Electron detection
  • Electron irradiation
  • Electron signal gain
  • Low-energy electrons
  • Responsivity
  • Silicon photodiodes
  • Ultrashallow junctions


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