Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection

Agata Šakić, Lis K. Nanver, Tom L.M. Scholtes, Carel Th H. Heerkens, Tihomir Knežević, Gerard Van Veen, Kees Kooijman, Patrick Vogelsang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Silicon photodiodes for use as low-energy electron detectors have been fabricated using a pure-boron technology to form the p+-anode region. The diode I-V characteristics are ideal and uniform over the wafer with low dark currents in the range of 0.6 pA/mm2. An extremely small thickness of the front-entrance window dead layers was achieved for a 1.8 nm B-layer deposition at 700 °C. All other processing layers on the photosensitive surface were removed using selective wet-etching to the B-layer, a process which is studied here with respect to residues and pitting effects that can result from the etching of Al to the B-layer. For the most optimal photodiode, a high relative electron signal gain is obtained: 60% at 500 eV, and 74% at 1 keV. The degradation of the dark current of B-layer photodiodes is examined for 10-min-long irradiation with 1-25 keV electron energies and stable performance is observed provided that the perimeter isolation-oxide is not exposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-44
Number of pages7
JournalSolid-state electronics
Volume65-66
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Boron
Silicon
Photodiodes
photodiodes
boron
Dark currents
electron energy
Electrons
silicon
Wet etching
Pitting
dark current
Oxides
Etching
Anodes
Diodes
etching
Irradiation
Detectors
electron counters

Keywords

  • Boron deposition
  • Dark current degradation
  • Electron detection
  • Electron irradiation
  • Electron signal gain
  • Low-energy electrons
  • Responsivity
  • Silicon photodiodes
  • Ultrashallow junctions

Cite this

Šakić, A., Nanver, L. K., Scholtes, T. L. M., Heerkens, C. T. H., Knežević, T., Veen, G. V., ... Vogelsang, P. (2011). Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection. Solid-state electronics, 65-66(1), 38-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sse.2011.06.042
Šakić, Agata ; Nanver, Lis K. ; Scholtes, Tom L.M. ; Heerkens, Carel Th H. ; Knežević, Tihomir ; Veen, Gerard Van ; Kooijman, Kees ; Vogelsang, Patrick. / Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection. In: Solid-state electronics. 2011 ; Vol. 65-66, No. 1. pp. 38-44.
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abstract = "Silicon photodiodes for use as low-energy electron detectors have been fabricated using a pure-boron technology to form the p+-anode region. The diode I-V characteristics are ideal and uniform over the wafer with low dark currents in the range of 0.6 pA/mm2. An extremely small thickness of the front-entrance window dead layers was achieved for a 1.8 nm B-layer deposition at 700 °C. All other processing layers on the photosensitive surface were removed using selective wet-etching to the B-layer, a process which is studied here with respect to residues and pitting effects that can result from the etching of Al to the B-layer. For the most optimal photodiode, a high relative electron signal gain is obtained: 60{\%} at 500 eV, and 74{\%} at 1 keV. The degradation of the dark current of B-layer photodiodes is examined for 10-min-long irradiation with 1-25 keV electron energies and stable performance is observed provided that the perimeter isolation-oxide is not exposed.",
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Šakić, A, Nanver, LK, Scholtes, TLM, Heerkens, CTH, Knežević, T, Veen, GV, Kooijman, K & Vogelsang, P 2011, 'Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection' Solid-state electronics, vol. 65-66, no. 1, pp. 38-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sse.2011.06.042

Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection. / Šakić, Agata; Nanver, Lis K.; Scholtes, Tom L.M.; Heerkens, Carel Th H.; Knežević, Tihomir; Veen, Gerard Van; Kooijman, Kees; Vogelsang, Patrick.

In: Solid-state electronics, Vol. 65-66, No. 1, 01.11.2011, p. 38-44.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Boron-layer silicon photodiodes for high-efficiency low-energy electron detection

AU - Šakić, Agata

AU - Nanver, Lis K.

AU - Scholtes, Tom L.M.

AU - Heerkens, Carel Th H.

AU - Knežević, Tihomir

AU - Veen, Gerard Van

AU - Kooijman, Kees

AU - Vogelsang, Patrick

PY - 2011/11/1

Y1 - 2011/11/1

N2 - Silicon photodiodes for use as low-energy electron detectors have been fabricated using a pure-boron technology to form the p+-anode region. The diode I-V characteristics are ideal and uniform over the wafer with low dark currents in the range of 0.6 pA/mm2. An extremely small thickness of the front-entrance window dead layers was achieved for a 1.8 nm B-layer deposition at 700 °C. All other processing layers on the photosensitive surface were removed using selective wet-etching to the B-layer, a process which is studied here with respect to residues and pitting effects that can result from the etching of Al to the B-layer. For the most optimal photodiode, a high relative electron signal gain is obtained: 60% at 500 eV, and 74% at 1 keV. The degradation of the dark current of B-layer photodiodes is examined for 10-min-long irradiation with 1-25 keV electron energies and stable performance is observed provided that the perimeter isolation-oxide is not exposed.

AB - Silicon photodiodes for use as low-energy electron detectors have been fabricated using a pure-boron technology to form the p+-anode region. The diode I-V characteristics are ideal and uniform over the wafer with low dark currents in the range of 0.6 pA/mm2. An extremely small thickness of the front-entrance window dead layers was achieved for a 1.8 nm B-layer deposition at 700 °C. All other processing layers on the photosensitive surface were removed using selective wet-etching to the B-layer, a process which is studied here with respect to residues and pitting effects that can result from the etching of Al to the B-layer. For the most optimal photodiode, a high relative electron signal gain is obtained: 60% at 500 eV, and 74% at 1 keV. The degradation of the dark current of B-layer photodiodes is examined for 10-min-long irradiation with 1-25 keV electron energies and stable performance is observed provided that the perimeter isolation-oxide is not exposed.

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KW - Dark current degradation

KW - Electron detection

KW - Electron irradiation

KW - Electron signal gain

KW - Low-energy electrons

KW - Responsivity

KW - Silicon photodiodes

KW - Ultrashallow junctions

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M3 - Article

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EP - 44

JO - Solid-state electronics

JF - Solid-state electronics

SN - 0038-1101

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ER -