Brain–Computer Interface Software: A Review and Discussion

Pierce Stegman, Chris S. Crawford, Marvin Andujar, Anton Nijholt, Juan E. Gilbert

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Software is a critical component of brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). While BCI hardware enables the retrieval of brain signals, BCI software is required to analyze these signals, produce output, and provide feedback. Users from multiple research areas have adopted BCI software platforms to investigate various concepts. Recently, interest in web-based BCI software has also emerged. The system design and control signal techniques of state-of-the-art BCI software platforms have been previously investigated. However, there is limited literature discussing user adoption of BCI software platforms. Additionally, there is a lack of work discussing the recent emergence of web tools relevant to BCI applications. This article aims to address these gaps by presenting a bibliometric review of the state-of-the-art BCI software. Furthermore, we discuss web-based BCIs and present tools that may be used to develop future web-based BCI applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8995646
Pages (from-to)101-115
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number2
Early online date12 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • bibliometric analysis
  • Brain-computer interface
  • Platforms
  • Signal processing
  • Software Architecture
  • n/a OA procedure


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