Transparent conductive materials (TCMs) with high p-type conductivity and broadband transparency have remained elusive for years. Despite decades of research, no p-type material has yet been found to match the performance of n-type TCMs. If developed, the high-performance p-type TCMs would lead to significant advances in a wide range of technologies, including thin-film transistors, transparent electronics, flat screen displays, and photovoltaics. Recent insights from high-throughput computational screening have defined design principles for identifying candidate materials with low hole effective mass, also known as disperse valence band materials. Particularly, materials with mixed-anion chemistry and nonoxide materials have received attention as being promising next-generation p-type TCMs. However, experimental demonstrations of these compounds are scarce compared to the computational output. One reason for this gap is the experimental difficulty of safely and controllably sourcing elements, such as sulfur, phosphorous, and iodine for depositing these materials in thin-film form. Another important obstacle to experimental realization is air stability or stability with respect to formation of the competing oxide phases. We summarize experimental demonstrations of disperse valence band materials, including synthesis strategies and common experimental challenges. We end by outlining recommendations for synthesizing p-type TCMs still absent from the literature and highlight remaining experimental barriers to be overcome.
- thin films
- transparent conductors