Calcification of subcutaneously implanted collagens in relation to cytotoxicity, cellular interactions and crosslinking

M.J.A. van Luyn, P.B. van Wachem, P.J. Dijkstra, L.H.H. Olde damink, J. Feijen

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In general, calcification of biomaterials occurs through an interaction of host and implanted material factors, but up to now the real origin of pathologic calcification is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate incidence of calcification of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagens (DSCs) with respect to their specific properties, during subcutaneous implantation in rats. Three types of DSCs were commercially obtained: non-crosslinked DSC (NDSC), and DSC crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GDSC) and hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDSC). NDSC, HDSC and GDSC were (enzymatically) tissue culture pretreated to eliminate their cytotoxic products. Beside this, crosslinking methods were modified to optimize mechanical properties and to decrease cytotoxicity, which resulted in HDSC* and GDSC*. Furthermore, DSC was crosslinked by activation of the carboxylic groups, i.e. by means of acyl azide and carbodiimide, resulting in AaDSC and CDSC, respectively. After implantation of HDSCs and GDSCs a relation between cytotoxicity and calcification of crosslinked DSC could be made. No relation was found between cellular infiltration of DSCs and calcification. However, from the use of different types and modification of crosslinking methods it might be concluded that calcification is mainly related to stable crosslinks, i.e. to the chemical properties of the obtained material.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-296
JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • METIS-105358
  • IR-85772


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