Calibration and validation of the HydroColor and Citclops smartphone applications for water quality monitoring

Peter N.jonaam Mahama*, Suhyb Mohammed Salama

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Water quality monitoring, essential for safeguarding ecosystems and human health, has gained increasing significance as societies worldwide prioritize environmental awareness and sustainable practices. Therefore, this study evaluates the performance of two smartphone applications (APPs), HydroColor and Citclops (now EyeOnWater), in estimating water quality parameters such as turbidity, the concentration of suspended particulate matter ([SPM]), and colour. By comparing laboratory and hyperspectral sensors measurements with water quality parameters estimated from smartphone images, the study assessed the accuracy and efficiency of the transfer functions employed by these APPs. The study findings revealed varying degrees of accuracy, with HydroColor R2 values of 0.36 and 0.83 for turbidity and [SPM], respectively, while Citclops achieved an R2 value of 0.7 for colour estimation. The study identified limitations in both APPs, particularly in their applicability to different water systems. These insights underscore the importance of proper calibration and validation procedures for smartphone-based water quality monitoring APPs. Also, the findings underscore the growing significance of smartphone APPs in enabling accessible and real-time monitoring of water quality, highlighting their potential to revolutionize the democratization of environmental monitoring practices through citizen science. Ultimately, this research contributes to the advancement of smartphone-based monitoring initiatives to inform decision-making processes in environmental management, and enhancing our understanding of water quality dynamics in diverse environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere30100
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2024


  • Applications (APPs)
  • Citclops
  • Colour
  • Concentration of suspended particulate materials ([SPM])
  • HydroColor
  • Smartphone image
  • Turbidity


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