We previously demonstrated that cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activation induces in vitro osteogenesis and in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). To analyze the species-specific response of this phenomenon and to translate our findings into a clinical trial, suitable animal models and cell lines are desirable. In this report, we assessed whether PKA plays a similar proosteogenic role played by two commonly used PKA activators—N6,2′-O-dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) and 8-bromo cAMP (8b-cAMP)—in a number of model systems. To this end, we treated MC3T3-E1 cells, mouse calvarial osteoblasts, mouse MSCs, and rat MSCs with cAMP. We demonstrate that cAMP inhibits osteogenesis in rodent cell types, evidenced by inhibition of osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (BGLAP), and collagen type 1 (COL1A1). In support of this, ex vivo–cultured mouse calvaria exposed to db-cAMP showed a reduction in bone volume. Interestingly, cAMP even stimulated adipogenic differentiation in rat MSCs. Taken together, our data demonstrate that cAMP inhibits osteogenesis in vitro and bone formation ex vivo in rodent models in contrast to our earlier findings in hMSCs. The species discrepancy in response to various osteogenic signals is a critical need to be tested in clinically relevant models to translate the fundamental findings in lower species level to clinical applications.
Siddappa, R., Mulder, W., Steeghs, I., van de Klundert, C., Fernandes, H. A. M., Liu, J., ... de Boer, J. (2009). cAMP/PKA signaling inhibits osteogenic differentiation and bone formation in rodent models. Tissue engineering. Part A, 15(21), 35-43. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0512