Carbon deposition on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics was observed due to photon-induced dissociation of hydrocarbons in a EUV lithography environment. The reflectance loss of the multilayer mirror is determined by the carbon layer thickness and density. To study the influence of various forms of carbon, EUV-induced carbon, hot filament and e-beam evaporated carbon were deposited on EUV multilayer mirrors. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the carbon layer thickness and the optical constants ranging from ultraviolet to near infrared. The carbon density (and thus reflectance loss) was determined from the optical constants using both Bruggeman's effective medium approximation and the Clausius–Mosotti equation. Both approaches result in a similar EUV reflectance loss, with an accuracy of about 4%. The application of this process to ultrathin carbon films is further discussed.
Chen, J., Louis, E., Wormeester, H., Harmsen, R., van de Kruijs, R. W. E., Lee, C. J., ... Bijkerk, F. (2011). Carbon induced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance loss characterized using visible-light ellipsometry. Measurement science and technology, 22(10), -. . https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/22/10/105705