Carbon induced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance loss characterized using visible-light ellipsometry

Juequan Chen, Eric Louis, Herbert Wormeester, Rob Harmsen, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth van de Kruijs, Christopher James Lee, Willem van Schaik, Frederik Bijkerk

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Carbon deposition on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics was observed due to photon-induced dissociation of hydrocarbons in a EUV lithography environment. The reflectance loss of the multilayer mirror is determined by the carbon layer thickness and density. To study the influence of various forms of carbon, EUV-induced carbon, hot filament and e-beam evaporated carbon were deposited on EUV multilayer mirrors. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the carbon layer thickness and the optical constants ranging from ultraviolet to near infrared. The carbon density (and thus reflectance loss) was determined from the optical constants using both Bruggeman's effective medium approximation and the Clausius–Mosotti equation. Both approaches result in a similar EUV reflectance loss, with an accuracy of about 4%. The application of this process to ultrathin carbon films is further discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105705
Pages (from-to)-
Number of pages8
JournalMeasurement science and technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • METIS-277877
  • IR-80445

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