Casimir-lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium and asymptotic nonadditivity

Mauro Antezza, Lev P. Pitaevskii, Sandro Stringari, Vitaly Svetovoy

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    We investigate the force acting between two parallel plates held at different temperatures. The force reproduces, as limiting cases, the well-known Casimir-Lifshitz surface-surface force at thermal equilibrium and the surface-atom force out of thermal equilibrium recently derived by M. Antezza et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 113202 (2005). The asymptotic behavior of the force at large distances is explicitly discussed. In particular when one of the two bodies is a rarefied gas the force is not additive, being proportional to the square root of the density. Nontrivial crossover regions at large distances are also identified.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)223203
    Number of pages4
    JournalPhysical review letters
    Issue numberTechnical
    Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2006


    • METIS-237877
    • IR-57506
    • EWI-9932

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