Many therapeutic proteins exert their pharmaceutical action inside the cytoplasm or onto individual organelles inside the cell. Intracellular protein delivery is considered to be the most direct, fastest and safest approach for curing gene-deficiency diseases, enhancing vaccination and triggering cell transdifferentiation processes, within other curative applications. However, several hurdles have to be overcome. For this purpose the use of polymers, with their ease of modification in physical and chemical properties, is attractive in protein drug carriers. They can protect their therapeutic protein cargo from degradation and enhance their bioavailability at targeted sites. In this chapter, potential and currently used polymers for fabrication of protein delivery systems and their applications for intracellular administration are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of cationic polymers for their ability to promote the cellular uptake of therapeutic proteins.
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