The spatiotemporal dynamics of cavitation bubble growth and collapse in shock-wave lithotripsy in a free field was studied experimentally. The lithotripter was equipped with two independently triggerable layers of piezoceramics. The front and back layers generated positive pressure amplitudes of 30 MPa and 15 MPa, respectively, and −10 MPa negative amplitude. The time interval between the launch of the shock waves was varied from 0 and 0.1 s, covering the regimens of pulse-modification (regimen A, delay 0 to 4 μs), shock wave-cavitation cluster interaction (B, 4 μs to 64 μs) and shock wave-gas bubble interaction (C, 256 μs to 0.1 s). The time-integrated cavitation activity was most strongly influenced in regimen A and, in regimen B, the spatial distribution of bubbles was altered, whereas enhancement of cavitation activity was observed in regimen C. Quantitative measurements of the spatial- and time-integrated void fractions were obtained with a photographic and light-scattering technique. The preconditions for a reproducible experiment are explained, with the existence of two distinct types of cavitation nuclei, small particles suspended in the liquid and residuals of bubbles from prior cavitation clusters.
|Number of pages||23|
|Journal||Ultrasound in medicine and biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|