The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the potential not only to transform the research information system, but also the educational information system or even the education system at large. Academic institutions will have to create their own publishing and archiving environments using the same technology as in research publishing. These developments will have a profound impact on the value chain of scientific information as it leads academic institutions to assume entirely new roles in this chain and to develop new capabilities. As well as a digital collection strategy, academic libraries will develop strategies for supporting e-learning and e-publishing. This leads to changes in the economic conditions at the institutional and also industrial level. The developments will be discussed in general.