In this paper, an analysis of radio channel characteristics for single- and multiple-antenna bodyworn systems for use in body-to-body communications is presented. The work was based on an extensive measurement campaign conducted at 2.45 GHz representative of an indoor sweep and search scenario for fire and rescue personnel. Using maximum-likelihood estimation in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), five candidate probability distributions were investigated and from these the kappa- mu distribution was found to best describe small-scale fading observed in the body-to-body channels. Additional channel parameters such as autocorrelation and the cross-correlation coefficient between fading signal envelopes were also analyzed. Low cross correlation and small differences in mean signal levels between potential dual-branch diversity receivers suggested that the prospect of successfully implementing diversity in this type application is extremely good. Moreover, using selection combination, maximal ratio, and equal gain combining, up to 8.69-dB diversity gain can be made available when four spatially separated antennas are used at the receiver. Additional improvements in the combined envelopes through lower level crossing rates and fade durations at low signal levels were also observed.
Cotton, S. L., & Scanlon, W. G. (2009). Channel characterization for single- and multiple-antenna wearable systems used for indoor body-to-body communications. IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, 57(Issue 4), 980-990. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2009.2014576