Characterization and control of biological microrobots

I.S.M. Khalil, Marc Philippe Pichel, L. Zondervan, Leon Abelmann, Sarthak Misra

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    Abstract

    This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using four techniques, i.e., Transmission Electron Microscopy images, flip-time, rotating-field and u-turn techniques. This characterization results in an average magnetic dipole moment of 3.32×10−16 A.m2 and 3.72×10−16 A.m2 for non-motile and motile MTB, respectively. Second, the frequency response analysis of MTB shows that its velocity decreases by 38% for a field-with-alternating-direction of 30 rad/s. Based on the characterized magnetic dipole moment, the magnetic force produced by our magnetic system is five orders-of-magnitude less than the propulsion force generated by the flagellum of the MTB. Therefore, point-to-point positioning of MTB cannot be achieved by exerting a magnetic force. A closed-loop control strategy is devised based on calculating the position tracking error, and capitalizes on the frequency response analysis of the MTB. Point-to-point closed-loop control of MTB is achieved for a reference set-point of 60 μm with average velocity of 20 μm/s. The closed-loop control system positions the MTB within a region-of-convergence of 10 μm diameter.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationExperimental Robotics
    Subtitle of host publicationThe 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics
    EditorsJaydev P. Desai, Gregory Dudek, Oussama Khatib, Vijay Kumar
    Place of PublicationCham
    PublisherSpringer
    Pages617-631
    Number of pages15
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-00065-7
    ISBN (Print)978-3-319-00065-7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Publication series

    NameSpringer Tracts in Advanced Robotics
    PublisherSpringer Verlag
    Volume88

    Fingerprint

    bacteria
    magnetic dipoles
    dipole moments
    magnetic moments
    frequency response
    propulsion
    positioning
    transmission electron microscopy

    Keywords

    • dipole moment
    • EWI-23332
    • Characterization
    • IR-86198
    • Biological microrobots
    • Magnetic
    • Control

    Cite this

    Khalil, I. S. M., Pichel, M. P., Zondervan, L., Abelmann, L., & Misra, S. (2013). Characterization and control of biological microrobots. In J. P. Desai, G. Dudek, O. Khatib, & V. Kumar (Eds.), Experimental Robotics: The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (pp. 617-631). (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; Vol. 88). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00065-7_42
    Khalil, I.S.M. ; Pichel, Marc Philippe ; Zondervan, L. ; Abelmann, Leon ; Misra, Sarthak. / Characterization and control of biological microrobots. Experimental Robotics: The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. editor / Jaydev P. Desai ; Gregory Dudek ; Oussama Khatib ; Vijay Kumar. Cham : Springer, 2013. pp. 617-631 (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics).
    @inbook{75edbe93fb51481fb253f0a1a510a986,
    title = "Characterization and control of biological microrobots",
    abstract = "This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using four techniques, i.e., Transmission Electron Microscopy images, flip-time, rotating-field and u-turn techniques. This characterization results in an average magnetic dipole moment of 3.32×10−16 A.m2 and 3.72×10−16 A.m2 for non-motile and motile MTB, respectively. Second, the frequency response analysis of MTB shows that its velocity decreases by 38{\%} for a field-with-alternating-direction of 30 rad/s. Based on the characterized magnetic dipole moment, the magnetic force produced by our magnetic system is five orders-of-magnitude less than the propulsion force generated by the flagellum of the MTB. Therefore, point-to-point positioning of MTB cannot be achieved by exerting a magnetic force. A closed-loop control strategy is devised based on calculating the position tracking error, and capitalizes on the frequency response analysis of the MTB. Point-to-point closed-loop control of MTB is achieved for a reference set-point of 60 μm with average velocity of 20 μm/s. The closed-loop control system positions the MTB within a region-of-convergence of 10 μm diameter.",
    keywords = "dipole moment, EWI-23332, Characterization, IR-86198, Biological microrobots, Magnetic, Control",
    author = "I.S.M. Khalil and Pichel, {Marc Philippe} and L. Zondervan and Leon Abelmann and Sarthak Misra",
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    Khalil, ISM, Pichel, MP, Zondervan, L, Abelmann, L & Misra, S 2013, Characterization and control of biological microrobots. in JP Desai, G Dudek, O Khatib & V Kumar (eds), Experimental Robotics: The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol. 88, Springer, Cham, pp. 617-631. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00065-7_42

    Characterization and control of biological microrobots. / Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, Marc Philippe; Zondervan, L.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak.

    Experimental Robotics: The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. ed. / Jaydev P. Desai; Gregory Dudek; Oussama Khatib; Vijay Kumar. Cham : Springer, 2013. p. 617-631 (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; Vol. 88).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - Characterization and control of biological microrobots

    AU - Khalil, I.S.M.

    AU - Pichel, Marc Philippe

    AU - Zondervan, L.

    AU - Abelmann, Leon

    AU - Misra, Sarthak

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using four techniques, i.e., Transmission Electron Microscopy images, flip-time, rotating-field and u-turn techniques. This characterization results in an average magnetic dipole moment of 3.32×10−16 A.m2 and 3.72×10−16 A.m2 for non-motile and motile MTB, respectively. Second, the frequency response analysis of MTB shows that its velocity decreases by 38% for a field-with-alternating-direction of 30 rad/s. Based on the characterized magnetic dipole moment, the magnetic force produced by our magnetic system is five orders-of-magnitude less than the propulsion force generated by the flagellum of the MTB. Therefore, point-to-point positioning of MTB cannot be achieved by exerting a magnetic force. A closed-loop control strategy is devised based on calculating the position tracking error, and capitalizes on the frequency response analysis of the MTB. Point-to-point closed-loop control of MTB is achieved for a reference set-point of 60 μm with average velocity of 20 μm/s. The closed-loop control system positions the MTB within a region-of-convergence of 10 μm diameter.

    AB - This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using four techniques, i.e., Transmission Electron Microscopy images, flip-time, rotating-field and u-turn techniques. This characterization results in an average magnetic dipole moment of 3.32×10−16 A.m2 and 3.72×10−16 A.m2 for non-motile and motile MTB, respectively. Second, the frequency response analysis of MTB shows that its velocity decreases by 38% for a field-with-alternating-direction of 30 rad/s. Based on the characterized magnetic dipole moment, the magnetic force produced by our magnetic system is five orders-of-magnitude less than the propulsion force generated by the flagellum of the MTB. Therefore, point-to-point positioning of MTB cannot be achieved by exerting a magnetic force. A closed-loop control strategy is devised based on calculating the position tracking error, and capitalizes on the frequency response analysis of the MTB. Point-to-point closed-loop control of MTB is achieved for a reference set-point of 60 μm with average velocity of 20 μm/s. The closed-loop control system positions the MTB within a region-of-convergence of 10 μm diameter.

    KW - dipole moment

    KW - EWI-23332

    KW - Characterization

    KW - IR-86198

    KW - Biological microrobots

    KW - Magnetic

    KW - Control

    U2 - 10.1007/978-3-319-00065-7_42

    DO - 10.1007/978-3-319-00065-7_42

    M3 - Chapter

    SN - 978-3-319-00065-7

    T3 - Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics

    SP - 617

    EP - 631

    BT - Experimental Robotics

    A2 - Desai, Jaydev P.

    A2 - Dudek, Gregory

    A2 - Khatib, Oussama

    A2 - Kumar, Vijay

    PB - Springer

    CY - Cham

    ER -

    Khalil ISM, Pichel MP, Zondervan L, Abelmann L, Misra S. Characterization and control of biological microrobots. In Desai JP, Dudek G, Khatib O, Kumar V, editors, Experimental Robotics: The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. Cham: Springer. 2013. p. 617-631. (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00065-7_42