### Abstract

This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using four techniques, i.e., Transmission Electron Microscopy images, flip-time, rotating-field and u-turn techniques. This characterization results in an average magnetic dipole moment of 3.32×10−16 A.m2 and 3.72×10−16 A.m2 for non-motile and motile MTB, respectively. Second, the frequency response analysis of MTB shows that its velocity decreases by 38% for a field-with-alternating-direction of 30 rad/s. Based on the characterized magnetic dipole moment, the magnetic force produced by our magnetic system is five orders-of-magnitude less than the propulsion force generated by the flagellum of the MTB. Therefore, point-to-point positioning of MTB cannot be achieved by exerting a magnetic force. A closed-loop control strategy is devised based on calculating the position tracking error, and capitalizes on the frequency response analysis of the MTB. Point-to-point closed-loop control of MTB is achieved for a reference set-point of 60 μm with average velocity of 20 μm/s. The closed-loop control system positions the MTB within a region-of-convergence of 10 μm diameter.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Experimental Robotics |

Subtitle of host publication | The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics |

Editors | Jaydev P. Desai, Gregory Dudek, Oussama Khatib, Vijay Kumar |

Place of Publication | Cham |

Publisher | Springer |

Pages | 617-631 |

Number of pages | 15 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 978-3-319-00065-7 |

ISBN (Print) | 978-3-319-00065-7 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2013 |

### Publication series

Name | Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics |
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Publisher | Springer Verlag |

Volume | 88 |

### Keywords

- dipole moment
- EWI-23332
- Characterization
- IR-86198
- Biological microrobots
- Magnetic
- Control

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## Cite this

Khalil, I. S. M., Pichel, M. P., Zondervan, L., Abelmann, L., & Misra, S. (2013). Characterization and control of biological microrobots. In J. P. Desai, G. Dudek, O. Khatib, & V. Kumar (Eds.),

*Experimental Robotics: The 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics*(pp. 617-631). (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; Vol. 88). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00065-7_42