Characterization of gradient control systems

Jorge Cortés, Arjan van der Schaft, Peter E. Crouch

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    36 Citations (Scopus)
    102 Downloads (Pure)


    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system corresponding to some pseudo-Riemannian metric whose Levi-Civita connection is equal to the given affine connection. The results rely on a suitable notion of compatibility of the system with respect to the given affine connection, and on the output behavior of the prolonged system and the gradient extension. The symmetric product associated with an affine connection plays a key role throughout the discussion.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1192-1214
    Number of pages23
    JournalSIAM journal on control and optimization
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2005


    • Prolongation and gradient extension of a nonlinear system
    • Externally equivalent systems
    • Gradient control systems
    • Symmetric product


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