Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system corresponding to some pseudo-Riemannian metric whose Levi-Civita connection is equal to the given affine connection. The results rely on a suitable notion of compatibility of the system with respect to the given affine connection, and on the output behavior of the prolonged system and the gradient extension. The symmetric product associated with an affine connection plays a key role throughout the discussion.
- Prolongation and gradient extension of a nonlinear system
- Externally equivalent systems
- Gradient control systems
- Symmetric product