Characterization of megahertz X-ray laser beams by multishot desorption imprints in PMMA

Vojtěch Vozda, Tomáš Burian, Věra Hájková, Libor Juha, Hartmut Enkisch, Bart Faatz, Martin Hermann, Iwanna Jacyna, Marek Jurek, Barbara Keitel, Dorota Klinger, Rolf Loch, Eric Louis, Igor A. Makhotkin, Elke Plönjes, Karel Saksl, Frank Siewert, Ryszard Sobierajski, Sebastian Strobel, Kai TiedtkeSven Toleikis, Gosse D.E. Vries, Zdeněk Zelinger, Jaromír Chalupský

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Proper diagnostics of intense free-electron laser (FEL) X-ray pulses is indisputably important for experimental data analysis as well as for the protection of beamline optical elements. New challenges for beam diagnostic methods are introduced by modern FEL facilities capable of delivering powerful pulses at megahertz (MHz) repetition rates. In this paper, we report the first characterization of a defocused MHz 13.5-nm beam generated by the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) using the method of multi-pulse desorption imprints in poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA). The beam fluence profile is reconstructed in a novel and highly accurate way that takes into account the nonlinear response of material removal to total dose delivered by multiple pulses. The algorithm is applied to experimental data of single-shot ablation imprints and multi-shot desorption imprints at both low (10 Hz) and high (1 MHz) repetition rates. Reconstructed response functions show a great agreement with the theoretical desorption response function model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25664-25681
Number of pages18
JournalOptics express
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2020


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