We report measurements of the nonlinearity profile of thermally poled low-loss germanosilicate films deposited on fused-silica substrates by PECVD, of interest as potential electro-optic devices. The profiles of films grown and poled under various conditions all exhibit a sharp peak similar to0.5 mum beneath the anode surface, followed by a weaker pedestal of approximately constant amplitude down to a depth of 13-16 mum, without the sign reversal typical of poled undoped fused silica. These features suggest that during poling, the films significantly slow down the injection of positive ions into the structure. After local optimization, we demonstrate a record peak nonlinear coefficient of similar to1.6 pm/V, approximately twice as strong as the highest reliable value reported in thermally poled fused silica glass, a significant improvement that was qualitatively expected from the presence of Ge.
Ozcan, A., Digonnet, M. J. F., Kino, G. S., Ay, F., & Aydinli, A. (2004). Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films. Optics express, 12(20), 4698-4708. https://doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.004698