Characterization of titanium hydride film after long-term air interaction: SEM, ARXPS and AES depth profile studies

W.F. Lisowski, A.H.J. van den Berg, M.A. Smithers, M. Smithers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Thin titanium hydride (TiHy) films are compared with thin titanium films after analysis using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The TiHy films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by precisely controlled hydrogen sorption at 298 K on Ti films evaporated onto a glass substrate. Analysis was performed in separate systems after long-term exposure of the films to air. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed a grain structure of the TiHy film, with a smaller grain size than the Ti film. Both the surface and bulk regions have been analysed in terms of their chemical composition and elemental distribution. Titanium dioxide was found to be the main chemical compound forming a contamination layer on both the TiHy and Ti film surfaces. Also, significant concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon as well as small amounts of nitrogen and titanium carbide were detected. The thickness of the contaminated titanium oxide layer on the TiHy and Ti films was found to be ~13 and~20 nm, respectively. Long-term air interaction with the TiHy film leads to bulk penetration of oxygen but not to complete TiHy decomposition.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)213-219
Number of pages7
JournalSurface and interface analysis
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • Titanium
  • titanium hydride
  • IR-71473
  • METIS-129095
  • AES depth profiles
  • SEM

Cite this