Characterization of tungsten tips for STM by SEM/AES/XPS

W. Lisowski, A.H.J. van den Berg, G.A.M. Kip, L.J. Hanekamp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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For the first time, both X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) techniques were applied in analysis of surface contamination of electrochemically etched Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) tungsten tips. Carbon monoxide, graphite, tungsten carbide and tungsten oxide were found as main surface contaminations of STM tungsten tips. The thickness of tungsten oxide layers was estimated to be about 1–3 nm. Quantitative analysis of surface and bulk concentration of carbon, oxygen and tungsten has been performed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-199
Number of pages4
JournalFresenius journal of analytical chemistry
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1991


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