Characterizing the Electrical Properties of Anisotropic, 3D-Printed Conductive Sheets for Sensor Applications

Alexander Dijkshoorn*, Martijn Schouten, Gerjan Wolterink, Remco G.P. Sanders, Stefano Stramigioli, Gijs Krijnen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
132 Downloads (Pure)


This paper introduces characterization techniques to investigate electrical properties of 3D-printed conductors. It presents the combination of a physical model to describe frequency dependent electrical properties of 3D-printed conductors; the use of infrared thermography in combination with Joule heating to characterize electrical anisotropy in 3D-printed sheets; and the use of the voltage contrast scanning electron microscopy method (VCSEM) to determine potential distributions in 3D-printed sheets. By means of lock-in thermography, infrared (IR) measurements are improved and amplitude modulation enables lock-in thermography at excitation frequencies above the thermal cut-off frequency. Measurements on sensor samples show the potential of the methods for characterizing sheet-like, conductive structures. The characterization methods allow improvement of 3D-printed sensor designs and exploit electrical properties of 3D-printed conductors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9133440
Pages (from-to)14218-14227
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE sensors journal
Issue number23
Early online date6 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • Temperature measurement
  • Frequency measurement
  • Frequency modulation
  • Sensor phenomena and characterization
  • Impedance
  • Resistance
  • 3D-Printing
  • Conductive
  • Anisotropy
  • Infrared thermography
  • Voltage Contrast Scanning Electron Microscopy
  • Sensor characterization
  • n/a OA procedure


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