Charge disproportionate molecular redox for discrete memristive and memcapacitive switching

Sreetosh Goswami, Santi P. Rath, Damien Thompson, Svante Hedstrom, Meenakshi Annamalai, Rajib Pramanick, B. Robert Ilic, Soumya Sarkar, Sonu Hooda, Christian A. Nijhuis, Jens Martin, R. Stanley Williams, Sreebrata Goswami, T. Venkatesan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


Electronic symmetry breaking by charge disproportionation results in multifaceted changes in the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of a material, triggering ferroelectricity, metal/insulator transition and colossal magnetoresistance. Yet, charge disproportionation lacks technological relevance because it occurs only under specific physical conditions of high or low temperature or high pressure. Here we demonstrate a voltage-triggered charge disproportionation in thin molecular films of a metal–organic complex occurring in ambient conditions. This provides a technologically relevant molecular route for simultaneous realization of a ternary memristor and a binary memcapacitor, scalable down to a device area of 60 nm2. Supported by mathematical modelling, our results establish that multiple memristive states can be functionally non-volatile, yet discrete—a combination perceived as theoretically prohibited. Our device could be used as a binary or ternary memristor, a binary memcapacitor or both concomitantly, and unlike the existing ‘continuous state’ memristors, its discrete states are optimal for high-density, ultra-low-energy digital computing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-389
Number of pages10
JournalNature nanotechnology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020
Externally publishedYes


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