Internationalisation is an important and widely discussed phenomenon in higher education. Recent important developments such as liberalisation of the education market in relation to General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the Bologna process and the Lisbon strategy have made internationalisation in higher education more complex, bringing new challenges to higher education institutions (HEIs). Whereas international mobility was previously the main activity in responding to internationalisation, activities are nowadays expanding to include for example participation in international consortia, setting up branch offices in foreign countries, and setting up joint programmes or degrees. Increasingly, a mix of underlying rationales and activities for internationalisation can be observed. What choices do HEIs make in responding to these challenges of internationalisation? Using an institutional theoretical framework supplemented with an organisational view, this study analyses the responses to internationalisation of 30 HEIs in seven Western European countries, showing what internal and external factors play a role in their responses. Main findings are that more specialised HEIs have relatively more foreign degree students within their institutions. Also, more economically oriented HEIs have relatively more foreign degree students present. What is interesting is that the more economically oriented HEIs are not simply interested in competing on the higher education market, but that they also perceive a need for cooperation. They seek cooperation with the right partners to achieve their goals and compete for talented students, staff en funding.
|Award date||21 Dec 2007|
|Place of Publication||Enschede|
|Publication status||Published - 21 Dec 2007|