Circular overbraiding of composite preforms on complex mandrels currently lacks automatic generation of machine control data. To solve this limitation, an inverse kinematics-based procedure was designed and implemented for circular braiding machines with optional guide rings, resulting in a take-up speed profile for a given braid angle distribution on mandrels with complex 3D shapes including non-axisymmetric, optionally eccentric cross-sections that can vary in shape and size along an optionally curved mandrel centerline, allowing a curved machine movement. This procedure reduces the problem size, resulting in a short computation time, fit for CAE process chain integration. Numerical control data was generated for a complex mandrel with a specified braid angle and a triaxial braid. A simulation using this control data yields a braid angle that deviates a few degrees from the specified braid angle. The simulation was validated experimentally, using the generated instructions to control the braiding machine. This showed a deviation from the simulated braid angle of 3 degrees in the centered, non-tapered mandrel regions, up to 10 degrees in tapered regions and an experimental scatter of 7 degrees. The deviation is mainly attributed to the neglect of yarn interaction and guide ring contact friction in the model, leading to an incorrectly modeled convergence zone length.
|Journal||Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|